Friday, April 5, 2013

1304.1452 (Gines Martinez)

Advances in Quark Gluon Plasma    [PDF]

Gines Martinez
In the last 20 years, heavy-ion collisions have been a unique way to study the hadronic matter in the laboratory. Its phase diagram remains unknown, although many experimental and theoretical studies have been undertaken in the last decades. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL was the first ever built heavy-ion collider. RHIC delivered its first collisions in June 2000 boosting the heavy-ion community. Impressive amount of experimental results has been obtained. In November 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN delivered lead-lead collisions at unprecedented center-of-mass energies, 14 times larger than that at RHIC. Needless to say that the heavy-ion programs at RHIC and LHC promise fascinating and exciting results in the next decade. In the second part, a historical approach will be adopted, starting with the notion of limiting temperature of matter introduced by Hagedorn in the 60's and the discovery of the QCD asymptotic freedom in the 70's. The phase diagram of hadronic matter, conceived as nowadays, will be shown together with the most important predictions of lattice QCD calculations at finite temperature. In the third part, the heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies will be proposed as a unique experimental method to study QGP in the laboratory, as suggested by the Bjorken model. In the last part of these lectures, I will present my biased review of the numerous experimental results obtained in the last decade at RHIC which lead to the concept of strong interacting QGP, and the first results obtained at LHC with the 2010 and 2011 PbPb runs. Finally, the last section is devoted to refer to other lectures about quark gluon plasma and heavy ion physics.
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